Sound-Absorbing Acoustical Ceilings & Treatments Product Guidance

Use the red-to-green product guidance below to select safer product types by avoiding those in red and preferring yellow and green, which are safer for occupants, fenceline communities, and workers.

Acoustic materials can be complex assemblies with many different components, facings, and finishes. Given the wide range of options and combinations, the red-to-green guidance focuses specifically on materials that absorb sound. Use the color-rankings below to choose a sound-absorbing material that is ranked yellow or green. Then use the bullet point guidance to consider additional materials that may be used with the absorber. 

When choosing acoustical ceilings and treatments:

  • Prefer acoustical absorbing materials based on biological materials or minerals. Good options include sheep’s wool, cementitious wood fiber, and certain fiberglass and mineral fiber.
  • Avoid formaldehyde-based binders in fiberglass and mineral fiber products.
  • Prefer mechanical installation over adhesives.
  • Avoid added antimicrobial treatments.
  • For decorative facings or additional components:
    • In general, avoid using additional materials that aren't necessary to achieve the desired acoustic performance.
    • When a facing is needed, prefer biological materials like solid wood, wood veneer, or sheep's wool.
    • Avoid plastic film and plastic fabric.
    • Metals and composite wood materials can be preferable to plastic materials but still have hazardous life cycle chemical impacts. If using metal panels, avoid epoxy and PFAS coatings. If using composite wood panels, prefer no added formaldehyde (NAF) cores and solid wood veneer facing, and avoid flame retardant cores if not required.
  • Avoid PVC (vinyl) components such as facers, fabrics, or tracks.
  • If using a fabric, avoid antimicrobial treatments, stain-repellent treatments, and toxic flame retardants.

Acoustic materials can be used for sound reflection, diffusion, or absorption. They can be used for wall or ceiling applications in various formats, including tiles, panels, baffles, clouds, and grids and can be made of a wide range of materials, including plastic, wood, wool, recycled paper, and glass or mineral fibers. They are sometimes complex assemblies with many different components, facings, and finishes. Given the large range of combinations for acoustic materials, the red-to-green guidance below focuses only on sound-absorbing materials. 

Sound-absorbing materials can contain hazardous chemicals. Those of highest concern include formaldehyde-based binders and persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic (PBT) plastic additives. In addition, the production of acoustic materials can have significant impacts on surrounding communities and the broader environment through the release of hazardous chemicals. These impacts can occur at the facilities that make the products as well as those throughout the supply chain. For example, rigid plastic acoustical panels are made almost entirely from petrochemicals: chemicals derived from oil or natural gas. Oil and gas extraction and processing release hazardous pollution that can have significant impacts on the health of people in surrounding communities, and these polluting facilities are disproportionately sited in BIPOC and low-wealth communities contributing to environmental injustice.[1]

Here is some additional, more detailed guidance to use when choosing acoustical ceilings and acoustic treatments:

  • Prefer acoustical absorbing materials based on biological materials or minerals. Good options include sheep’s wool, cementitious wood fiber, and certain fiberglass and mineral fiber. This helps reduce the amount of plastic and other petrochemicals production, which has significant impacts on surrounding communities.
  • Avoid formaldehyde-based binders in fiberglass and mineral fiber products. When formaldehyde-based binders are used in products, formaldehyde, a carcinogen and asthmagen, can be released into communities during manufacturing and into buildings during use.
  • Prefer mechanical installation over adhesives, which can add additional hazards and make it harder to reclaim or recycle products after use.
  • Avoid added antimicrobial treatments. Antimicrobials are pesticides and can negatively impact human health.[2] Some components of acoustical assemblies, such as adhesives, may require antimicrobials as preservatives, but optional antimicrobial treatments are typically not necessary for the performance of acoustic panels and treatments, and should be avoided.
  • For decorative facings or additional components:
    • In general, avoid using additional materials that aren't necessary to achieve the desired acoustic performance. All materials have some sort of impact related to their extraction, production, and transportation. Consider whether you can do without the additional materials.
    • When a facing is needed, prefer biological materials like solid wood, wood veneer, or sheep's wool. These materials typically have fewer hazardous chemical impacts in their life cycle than others.
    • Avoid plastic film and plastic fabric. Plastics are derived from oil or natural gas and have significant impacts on the health of people in communities surrounding extraction and manufacturing facilities.
    • Metals and composite wood materials can be preferable to plastic materials but still have hazardous life cycle chemical impacts. For example, both aluminum and steel manufacturing expose workers to hazardous chemicals and are tied to occupational cancer.[3] Composite wood panels contain binders and additives with hazardous chemicals impacts during manufacturing and use.
      • If using metal panels, avoid epoxy- and PFAS-based coatings. Metal ceiling panels can use epoxy-polyester powder coats or fluoropolymer coatings. Epoxies commonly use bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, in their production.[4] Fluoropolymers are a type of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). PFAS are also known as forever chemicals because they last for long periods of time in the environment.[5] Once they are in our buildings and environments, they are difficult to eliminate. PVDF or polyvinylidene fluoride is one example of a PFAS coating that should be avoided.
      • If using composite wood panels, prefer no added formaldehyde (NAF) cores and solid wood veneer facing, and avoid flame retardant cores if not required. Composite wood acoustical panels can contain formaldehyde-based binders in the composite wood, in laminate facings, and in the adhesive used to adhere the facing to the board. If using composite wood panels, prefer no added formaldehyde (NAF) cores and solid wood veneer facing. Flame retardant composite wood cores commonly contain borate-based flame retardants, which are reproductive toxicants, at around 10% of the product or more by weight.[6]
  • Avoid PVC (vinyl) components such as facers, fabrics, or tracks. PVC or polyvinyl chloride, also commonly referred to as vinyl, can be used as a rigid facer on some acoustical panels, as a fabric, or as a track system for stretched-fabric panels. Vinyl products may also be used to block sound transmission through walls, floors, and ceilings. PVC requires more hazardous chemicals to manufacture than most other types of plastics and has additional end-of-life concerns relative to other plastics, including its potential to form persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic dioxins when burned.[7]
  • If using a fabric, avoid antimicrobial treatments, stain-repellent treatments, and toxic flame retardants.
    • Antimicrobials are pesticides and can negatively impact human health.[8]
    • Stain-repellent treatments are commonly based on PFAS, a class of chemicals that are a high priority to avoid because they can be toxic, persist in the environment, and build up in body tissues.[9]
    • Additive flame retardants can be hazardous, particularly if they are halogenated flame retardants, which are a priority for avoidance because they can be persistent and toxic. If flame retardants are necessary to meet code requirements, use safer flame retardants.[10]

Sheep’s wool felt is most often used with other acoustic absorbing materials as a finish but can also be used as an independent acoustic panel or core. Sheep’s wool itself is relatively low hazard throughout its life cycle. Naturally occurring compounds such as keratin and lanolin provide sheep's wool with protection against odor-causing bacteria as well as mold and mildew without the addition of antimicrobials.

Within this type prefer: Products that are natural in color, without added dyes. Dyes used with sheep’s wool can be hazardous, such as azo dyes and those that use hexavalent chromium compounds.[11] Dyes can also be per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS).[12] PFAS are known as forever chemicals because they last for long periods of time in the environment. Once they are in our buildings and environments, they are difficult to eliminate. Preferring products without dyes avoids these hazards.

Within this type watch out for: Wool blends that contain petrochemical polymers like polyester (PET) or nylon. 

Acoustic nonwoven fabric is made mostly of cellulose and glass fibers with a phosphorus-based flame retardant and petrochemical polymer binder. They are relatively low hazard, with some manufacturing concerns for workers and fenceline communities from the petrochemical polymers.

Acoustic nonwoven materials are typically paired with additional materials like perforated metal or composite wood panels. They can also be used to increase the acoustic performance of other products like cementitious wood fiber panels. Note that metal and composite wood materials can be preferable to plastics but still have hazardous life cycle chemical impacts. See the Read More section for concerns related to these materials. As noted above, avoid using additional materials that aren't necessary. If you use a metal or composite wood acoustical panel, then an acoustic nonwoven is a good option for backing material from a material health perspective.

Fiberglass acoustical panels can be used on their own for ceilings (typically with a painted fiberglass veil facing) or as a core or infill for wall or ceiling panels. Fiberglass acoustical panels are made primarily from glass fibers and a binder that holds the fibers together. These binders are still commonly based on formaldehyde, a carcinogen and asthmagen, but products with alternative binders are available. Fiberglass acoustical panels ranked light green avoid formaldehyde-based binders and instead use binders based on low-hazard ingredients like sugars and citric acid. These products are relatively low hazard with some manufacturing concerns for workers and fenceline communities from the manufacture of glass fibers, including potential heavy metal releases at the high processing temperatures required.[13]

These panels can be used in fabric-wrapped and stretched-fabric systems, as well as with metal, composite wood, or solid wood panels, or with acoustical plastering systems. The additional materials that may be used with fiberglass acoustical panels are not considered in this ranking. As noted above, avoid using additional materials that aren't necessary.

Within this type watch out for: Products using formaldehyde-based binders, which are ranked orange in this guidance. You can usually identify formaldehyde-free products based on descriptions in product literature such as transparency documents. Formaldehyde-free products may advertise the use of a plant-based binder or otherwise call out that they are made without formaldehyde binders or resins. If in doubt, verify with the manufacturer that the product does not include formaldehyde binders.

Mineral fiber acoustical panels can be used on their own for ceilings (typically with a painted fiberglass veil facing) or as a core or infill for wall or ceiling panels. Mineral fiber acoustical ceiling panels typically contain mineral fiber, lightweight fillers like perlite, and binders. The binders are commonly based on low-hazard ingredients like starch. These products are relatively low hazard with some manufacturing concerns for workers and fenceline communities, including potential heavy metal releases from the high processing temperatures required for the production of mineral fibers.

These panels can be used in fabric-wrapped and stretched-fabric systems, as well as with acoustical plastering systems. The additional materials that may be used with mineral fiber acoustical panels are not considered in this ranking. As noted above, avoid using additional materials that aren't necessary.

Within this type watch out for: Products using formaldehyde-based binders, which are ranked orange in this guidance. You can usually identify formaldehyde-free products based on product literature such as transparency documents. If in doubt, verify with the manufacturer that the product does not include formaldehyde binders.

Wood fiber or wood wool acoustical panels are made primarily of shredded wood and a cement-type binder. Because of the specific fiber dimensions needed to provide the desired structure and acoustic performance, recycled wood is not used for these products. The binder may be Portland cement or magnesium oxide-based. Products can be unfinished, clear-finished, or painted. These products are relatively low hazard, with some manufacturing concerns for workers and fenceline communities from cement production. For example, fuel- and process-related emissions from Portland cement manufacture can expose fenceline communities to toxic chemicals, including mercury. In addition, decarbonization efforts often promote the incineration of plastic and solid waste at cement kilns that can release additional harmful pollutants, including dioxins, benzene, lead and mercury.[14]

Some panels may be fabric-wrapped. Avoid fabrics to keep hazardous chemical impacts to a minimum.

Spray-applied acoustical fiberglass is made primarily from glass fibers with small quantities of additives and a water-based adhesive to adhere the insulation in place. These products can be used as a ceiling finish material. They are relatively low hazard, but commonly contain a small quantity of carcinogenic dedusting oils, used to keep dust levels down during manufacture and installation. 

Because these products are loose materials mixed with the adhesive on site, dust may be generated during installation, which could expose installers and others present during installation. In addition, there are some manufacturing concerns for workers and fenceline communities from the glass fiber production, including potential heavy metal releases at the high processing temperatures required.[15]

The most common type of acoustical spray is based on recycled paper and a water-based adhesive to adhere the insulation in place. These products can be used as a ceiling finish material. The specific types of paper used in products marketed for acoustical applications are not clear, but in general, cellulose insulation can use newspapers, paperboard, or cardboard. The use of recycled materials cuts down on impacts associated with generating new materials. As a result, spray-applied acoustical cellulose is expected to have fewer chemical impacts in manufacturing compared with many other acoustic materials. However, it is not without impacts. Spray-applied acoustical cellulose can contain a small quantity of carcinogenic dedusting oils, used to keep dust levels down during manufacture and installation. In addition, boric acid, a reproductive toxicant, is commonly added as a flame retardant.[16] Recycled paper and cardboard can include contaminant chemicals of concern, such as bisphenols and orthophthalates. All of these hazards can be a concern for occupants should dust enter living spaces. Because these products are loose materials mixed with the adhesive on site, dust may be generated during installation, exposing installers and others present during installation.

Also called compressed fiber acoustical panels or polyester felt fiber panels, these products are made of polyester terephthalate or PET. These products can be used on their own or as a core or infill for wall or ceiling panels. Most are a solid color throughout but they can also be printed with a pattern, such as a wood look finish. Product literature indicates most products use a combination of virgin and recycled PET, where the recycled content is commonly noted as post-consumer bottles. The exact percentage of recycled PET varies between products, with the median reported as up to 60%. Some products have no recycled content, and all products use some virgin PET, with hazardous chemical impacts associated with petrochemical extraction and refining and the production of new PET plastic. The use of some recycled PET cuts down on these impacts, however, the recycled materials are not without impacts. Recycled PET can include contaminant chemicals of concern, such as bisphenols and orthophthalates.

PET, both new and recycled, commonly contains hazardous antimony-based catalysts.[17] In addition, additives called antioxidants are typically required to protect PET from degradation during processing. In PET panels, these antioxidants can be persistent, bioaccumulative toxicants.[18]

PET fiber panels may be used as a core in stretched-fabric or fabric-faced systems. Reported facing materials include PET, sheep's wool felt, polyethylene, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). These additional materials that may be used with PET acoustical panels are not considered in this ranking. As noted above, avoid using additional materials that aren't necessary, and when used, prefer biological materials like sheep’s wool. Avoid PVC.

Within this type prefer: Products with the most recycled PET to reduce the amount of new plastic produced.

Fiberglass acoustical panels are made primarily from glass fibers and a binder that holds the fibers together. These binders are still commonly based on formaldehyde. Formaldehyde, a carcinogen and asthmagen, can be released into communities during manufacturing. Small quantities of residual formaldehyde can also be released into living spaces during use. In addition, some products use urea-formaldehyde binders, which degrade over time and can continue to emit formaldehyde long after the product's manufacture and installation.[19] There are also some manufacturing concerns for workers and fenceline communities from the manufacture of glass fibers, including potential heavy metal releases at the high processing temperatures required.

These panels can be used in fabric-wrapped and stretched-fabric systems, as well as with metal, composite wood, or solid wood panels, or with acoustical plastering systems. The additional materials that may be used with fiberglass acoustical panels are not considered in this ranking. As noted above, avoid using additional materials that aren't necessary.

Within this type prefer: Formaldehyde-free products, which are ranked light green in this guidance. You can usually identify formaldehyde-free products based on descriptions in product literature such as transparency documents.These products may advertise the use of a plant-based binder or otherwise call out that they are made without formaldehyde binders or resins. If in doubt, verify with the manufacturer that the product does not include formaldehyde binders.

Mineral fiber acoustical panels can be used on their own for ceilings (typically with a painted fiberglass veil facing) or as a core or infill for wall or ceiling panels. Mineral fiber acoustical ceiling panels typically contain mineral fiber, lightweight fillers like perlite, and binders. While binders are commonly based on starch, they can still rely on formaldehyde. Formaldehyde, a carcinogen and asthmagen, can be released into communities during manufacturing. Small quantities of residual formaldehyde can also be released into living spaces during use. In addition, some products use urea-formaldehyde binders, which degrade over time and can continue to emit formaldehyde long after the product's manufacture and installation.[20] In addition to the use of formaldehyde-based binders, mineral fibers pose some manufacturing concerns for workers and fenceline communities, including potential heavy metal releases from the high processing temperatures required for the production of mineral fibers.

These panels can be used in fabric-wrapped and stretched-fabric systems, as well as with acoustical plastering systems. The additional materials that may be used with mineral fiber acoustical panels are not considered in this ranking. As noted above, avoid using additional materials that aren't necessary.

Within this type prefer: Formaldehyde-free products which are ranked light green in this guidance. You can usually identify formaldehyde-free products based on product literature such as transparency documents. If in doubt, verify with the manufacturer that the product does not include formaldehyde binders.

Rigid plastic acoustical panels are more commonly used for sound reflective or sound diffusion applications, but some sound-absorbing products are available. They can be made from a range of plastics, including acrylics, polycarbonate, and PETg (a variation on standard polyethylene terephthalate, PET). The panels can have different structures to provide acoustical properties, such as a honeycomb structure between two solid panels with small perforations.[21] Very little content information is available for these panels. Additives such as antioxidants or UV stabilizers are typically required to protect the plastics from degradation. These additives may be persistent, bioaccumulative toxicants.[22]

These products are almost entirely plastic and use much more material than other sound-absorbing products. Different plastics have different life cycle chemical impacts, but all are based on petrochemical inputs. Oil and gas extraction and refining, necessary for the production of petrochemicals, exposes fenceline communities to elevated concentrations of hazardous pollution.[23] The plastic itself is often also based on hazardous inputs. For example, polycarbonate uses bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor that interferes with how hormones work in the body.

Supporting Information

Unless otherwise noted, product content and health hazard information is based on research done by Healthy Building Network for Common Product profiles, reports, and blogs. Links to the appropriate resources are provided.

Common Product Records Sourced

Endnotes

[1] “Environmental Impacts of Natural Gas,” Union of Concerned Scientists, June 19, 2014, https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/environmental-impacts-natural-gas.; Tim Donaghy and Charlie Jiang, “Fossil Fuel Racism: How Phasing Out Oil, Gas, and Coal Can Protect Communities,” April 13, 2021, https://www.greenpeace.org/usa/reports/fossil-fuel-racism/.; Garcia-Gonzales, Diane A., Seth B.C. Shonkoff, Jake Hays, and Michael Jerrett. “Hazardous Air Pollutants Associated with Upstream Oil and Natural Gas Development: A Critical Synthesis of Current Peer-Reviewed Literature.” Annual Review of Public Health 40, no. 1 (2019): 283–304. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043715.; Gonzalez, David J. X., Anthony Nardone, Andrew V. Nguyen, Rachel Morello-Frosch, and Joan A. Casey. “Historic Redlining and the Siting of Oil and Gas Wells in the United States.” Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, April 13, 2022, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41370-022-00434-9.; Berberian, Alique G., Jenny Rempel, Nicholas Depsky, Komal Bangia, Sophia Wang, and Lara J. Cushing. “Race, Racism, and Drinking Water Contamination Risk From Oil and Gas Wells in Los Angeles County, 2020.” American Journal of Public Health 113, no. 11 (November 2023): 1191–1200. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2023.307374.

[2] Healthy Building Network, and Perkins+Will. “Healthy Environments: Understanding Antimicrobial Ingredients in Building Materials,” March 2017. https://healthybuilding.net/reports/4-healthy-environments-understanding-antimicrobial-ingredients-in-building-materials.; Healthy Building Network, Green Science Policy Institute, Perkins&Will, International Living Future Institute, and Health Product Declaration Collaborative. “Joint Statement on Antimicrobials in Building Products,” March 31, 2021. https://www.mindfulmaterials.com/antimicrobials-letter

[3] IARC. Chemical Agents and Related Occupations. Vol. 100F. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon, France, 2012. https://publications.iarc.fr/Book-And-Report-Series/Iarc-Monographs-On-The-Identification-Of-Carcinogenic-Hazards-To-Humans/Chemical-Agents-And-Related-Occupations-2012.

[4] BPA is on the EU Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC) list due to endocrine disrupting properties. ECHA. “Candidate List of Substances of Very High Concern for Authorisation.” Accessed December 14, 2023. https://echa.europa.eu/candidate-list-table.

[5] National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. “Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS),” December 4, 2023. https://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/pfc/index.cfm.

[6] Borate-based flame retardants including boric acid (CASRN 10043-35-3) and boron sodium oxide, tetrahydrate (CASRN 12280-03-4) are listed in EU GHS Annex 6 Table 3-1 as reproductive toxicants. ECHA European Chemicals Agency. “Classification and Labelling Inventory.” Accessed September 15, 2023. https://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals/cl-inventory-database.

[7] Ann Blake and Mark Rossi. “Plastics Scorecard.” Clean Production Action, July 1, 2014. https://www.cleanproduction.org/resources/entry/plastics-scorecard-resource.; Zhang, Mengmei, Alfons Buekens, Xuguang Jiang, and Xiaodong Li. “Dioxins and Polyvinylchloride in Combustion and Fires.” Waste Management & Research 33, no. 7 (July 1, 2015): 630–43. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X15590651; Avakian Maureen D, Dellinger Barry, Fiedler Heidelore, Gullet Brian, Koshland Catherine, Marklund Stellan, Oberdörster Günter, et al. “The Origin, Fate, and Health Effects of Combustion by-Products: A Research Framework.” Environmental Health Perspectives 110, no. 11 (November 1, 2002): 1155–62. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.021101155.

[8] Healthy Building Network, and Perkins+Will. “Healthy Environments: Understanding Antimicrobial Ingredients in Building Materials,” March 2017. https://healthybuilding.net/reports/4-healthy-environments-understanding-antimicrobial-ingredients-in-building-materials

[9] National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. “Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS),” December 4, 2023. https://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/pfc/index.cfm.

[10] Guidance on safer flame retardants is available in the Health Care Without Harm Guidance on Furniture and Furnishings. See: https://practicegreenhealth.org/sites/default/files/2021-11/HH%20Healthy%20Interiors%20Guidance%20-%20Version%202.3%20%28March%202020%29.pdf

[11] Azo dyes can be carcinogens or break down into carcinogens. See: Chung, King-Thom. “Azo Dyes and Human Health: A Review.” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C 34, no. 4 (October 1, 2016): 233–61. https://doi.org/10.1080/10590501.2016.1236602.

[12] For example, this chemical, “2-Naphthalenesulfonic acid, 6-amino-5-[[4-chloro-2-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl]azo]-4-hydroxy-, monosodium salt” (CASRN: 57741-47-6) and this chemical, “2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 6-amino-4-hydroxy-5-[[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]azo]-, monosodium salt” CASRN: 67786-14-5).  These chemicals meet the definition of PFAS in OECD's 2021 report, where “PFASs are defined as fluorinated substances that contain at least one fully fluorinated methyl or methylene carbon atom (without any H/Cl/Br/I atom attached to it), i.e. with a few noted exceptions, any chemical with at least a perfluorinated methyl group (–CF3) or a perfluorinated methylene group (–CF2–) is a PFAS.” See Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. “Reconciling Terminology of the Universe of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances: Recommendations and Practical Guidance.” Series on Risk Management, July 9, 2021. https://one.oecd.org/document/ENV/CBC/MONO(2021)25/En/pdf.

[13] Rebecca Stamm, et al. “Chemical and Environmental Justice Impacts in the Life Cycle of Building Insulation: Case Study on Glass Fibers in Fiberglass Insulation,” September 2022. https://healthybuilding.net/uploads/files/EEFA%20Glassfiber%20Insulation%20Case%20Study.pdf.

[14] Veena Singla and Sasha Stashwick. “Cut Carbon and Toxic Pollution, Make Cement Clean and Green.” NRDC (blog), January 18, 2022. https://www.nrdc.org/experts/sasha-stashwick/cut-carbon-and-toxic-pollution-make-cement-clean-and-green

[15] Rebecca Stamm, et al. “Chemical and Environmental Justice Impacts in the Life Cycle of Building Insulation: Case Study on Glass Fibers in Fiberglass Insulation,” September 2022. https://healthybuilding.net/uploads/files/EEFA%20Glassfiber%20Insulation%20Case%20Study.pdf.

[16] Boric acid (CASRN 10043-35-3) is listed in EU GHS Annex 6 Table 3-1 as a reproductive toxicant. ECHA European Chemicals Agency. “Classification and Labelling Inventory.” Accessed September 15, 2023. https://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals/cl-inventory-database.

[17] The US National Toxicology Program identifies antimony trioxide, a common catalyst for PET, (CASRN 1309-64-4) as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. National Toxicology Program (NTP). 2018. Report on Carcinogens monograph on antimony trioxide. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Toxicology Program. RoC Monograph 13. https://doi.org/10.22427/ROC-MGRAPH-13.

[18] For example: Benzenamine, 4-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-N-(4-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)phenyl)- (CASRN: 10081-67-1) is listed as a PBT on the ChemSec SIN List.

[19] Salthammer, Tunga, Sibel Mentese, and Rainer Marutzky. “Formaldehyde in the Indoor Environment.” Chemical Reviews 110, no. 4 (April 14, 2010): 2536–72. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr800399g

[20] Salthammer, Tunga, Sibel Mentese, and Rainer Marutzky. “Formaldehyde in the Indoor Environment.” Chemical Reviews 110, no. 4 (April 14, 2010): 2536–72. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr800399g.

[21] Moxie Surfaces. “AIR-Board Acoustic,” May 2019. https://surface-products.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/moxie-surfaces-air-board-acoustic.pdf.

[22] For example: Benzenamine, 4-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-N-(4-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)phenyl)- (CASRN: 10081-67-1) used in PET and 4-tert-Butyl-6-sec-butyl-2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenol (CASRN: 36437-37-3) and 2-(2H-Benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)phenol (CASRN: 70321-86-7) used in polycarbonate are all listed as PBTs on the ChemSec SIN List.

[23] “Environmental Impacts of Natural Gas,” Union of Concerned Scientists, June 19, 2014, https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/environmental-impacts-natural-gas.; Tim Donaghy and Charlie Jiang, “Fossil Fuel Racism: How Phasing Out Oil, Gas, and Coal Can Protect Communities,” April 13, 2021, https://www.greenpeace.org/usa/reports/fossil-fuel-racism/.; Garcia-Gonzales, Diane A., Seth B.C. Shonkoff, Jake Hays, and Michael Jerrett. “Hazardous Air Pollutants Associated with Upstream Oil and Natural Gas Development: A Critical Synthesis of Current Peer-Reviewed Literature.” Annual Review of Public Health 40, no. 1 (2019): 283–304. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043715.; Gonzalez, David J. X., Anthony Nardone, Andrew V. Nguyen, Rachel Morello-Frosch, and Joan A. Casey. “Historic Redlining and the Siting of Oil and Gas Wells in the United States.” Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, April 13, 2022, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41370-022-00434-9.; Berberian, Alique G., Jenny Rempel, Nicholas Depsky, Komal Bangia, Sophia Wang, and Lara J. Cushing. “Race, Racism, and Drinking Water Contamination Risk From Oil and Gas Wells in Los Angeles County, 2020.” American Journal of Public Health 113, no. 11 (November 2023): 1191–1200. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2023.307374.

Last updated: December 20, 2023