Turf Hazard Spectrum

Here is some general guidance to use when selecting turf for athletic fields or other outdoor recreation spaces:

  • Choose natural grass over synthetic turf.
    • Choose grass that is appropriate for the soil conditions and climate, and regularly aerate the field.
    • Transition to a turf management program that reduces the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers and strives to eliminate them.
  • If using synthetic turf:
    • Select plant-based or mineral-based infills over synthetic infills. If you must use synthetic infill, avoid using crumb rubber.
    • Avoid using turf or infill that advertise antimicrobial protection.
    • Require full content disclosure for the turf, infill, and shock pad.
    • If using a shock pad avoid using in-situ pads or prefabricated pads made with crumb rubber or PVC.
    • Ask your supplier about end of life take back, recycling, or extended manufacturer responsibility programs.

When choosing an athletic field option, organizations must consider the cost over the entire life of the product. For natural grass, this includes any up-front installation or improvement costs as well as maintenance over time. For synthetic turf, this includes installation, maintenance, disposal, and replacement costs.

In addition to the financial costs, the health and environmental costs of installing new turf should also be considered. Synthetic turf is often marketed as a low-maintenance alternative to natural grass, but it has the potential to introduce toxic chemicals, microplastics and other hazards. Conventional natural grass management using synthetic pesticides and fertilizers may also introduce toxic chemicals into the environment, but steps can be taken to manage grass in a way that eliminates the use of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers. To highlight steps that can be taken to reduce toxic exposures, this Hazard Spectrum divides natural grass management programs into three categories: Synthetic Pesticide-Free (organic), Integrated Pest Management, and Calendar-Based Pest Management. Individual grass management plans will vary and some may not easily fit into one these three categories, but they will tend to fall somewhere along the spectrum. 

Athletic fields made from synthetic turf require infill to keep the grass blades upright and provide shock attenuation, or impact protection. Infill generally consists of small particles of rubber or other synthetic polymers, plant or mineral-derived particles, or some combination of these. Rubber/polymeric infills are often used in combination with sand, but may be used without it. One of the cheapest infill options is ground up recycled tire scrap, also known as “crumb rubber” or “tire crumb.” Because crumb rubber contains a large number of chemicals known to be toxic to human health and the environment, numerous risk assessment studies have attempted to estimate health risks of playing on fields with tire crumb infill; some have identified risks, while others have concluded risks may be minimal. All of the risk assessment studies have limitations, and no robust epidemiological study has been conducted on this topic.[1] To address these limitations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (CDC/ATSDR), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency effort in 2016 to better characterize the composition of crumb rubber and human exposures to these chemicals.[2] These agencies have gathered information on existing literature as well as some additional toxicity information. Some additional areas have been identified for further research, including inhalation exposure to PAHs.[3] The final report includes an extensive list of data gaps that still exist, such as a lack of epidemiological and biomonitoring studies to date.[4]  

Concerns over crumb rubber extend beyond chemical exposures to individuals playing on the surfaces. These include degradation of rubber infill, leaching of chemicals from the infill, a concern for environmentally persistent chemicals like zinc and lead, and disposal and recycling of artificial turf components.[5]

There are other infills on the market labeled as alternatives to tire crumb, some of which are made with synthetic materials, and others labeled as “natural,” made with mineral- or plant-based materials. Though information on chemicals contents of these infill options is limited, several studies have found presence of some of the same hazardous chemicals found in tire crumb in some of the other synthetic infills.[6] Other concerns, such as respiratory hazards, have been noted for some of the natural infills. No alternative infill option is free of concern, though some may be considered somewhat safer than tire crumb. Regardless of infill choice, all synthetic turf systems have the ability to introduce synthetic materials into the environment through the breakdown of the artificial grass carpet.

Roughly 265 million square feet of synthetic turf and 777 million pounds of infill are currently in use in North America.[7] Current evidence suggests that most turf and infill is not recycled.[8] Lack of turf recycling could mean significant impacts when these installed turf fields reach their end of life. Furthermore, an estimated 1-4% of the plastic infill on a field is lost each year and may become a source of microplastic pollution, which is a growing environmental concern.[9]

The majority of research to date has focused on infill, but lead, phthalates, and per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured in turf fibers.[10] The turf carpet can also contain hazardous antimicrobials, or require regular application of an antimicrobial as part of the maintenance procedures. These additional hazards from the turf fibers and backing are considered for all synthetic turf options in the Hazard Spectrum below. 

Healthy Building Network’s guidance on athletic turf is based on a hazard identification approach. This precautionary approach considers the best available information and identifies which products contain the most hazardous content. It also considers upstream process chemicals and end of life chemical concerns. It does not, however, include a full lifecycle assessment that compares estimates of water use and greenhouse gas emissions among different types of athletic fields as others have done previously.[11]

Here is some general guidance to use when selecting turf for athletic fields or other outdoor recreation spaces:

  • Choose natural grass over synthetic turf. Synthetic chemicals used to manage grass can carry a wide range of hazards, but steps can be taken to transition away from the use of synthetic fertilizers and eliminate the need for pesticides altogether while still producing a high-performance athletic field.[12]
    • Choose grass that is appropriate for the soil conditions and regularly aerate the field. This will improve impact protection and grass resiliency and reduce reliance upon synthetic pesticides and fertilizers.
    • Transition to a turf management program that reduces the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers and strives to eliminate them. This will reduce the reliance on chemicals with known health hazards and other lifecycle concerns.
  • If using synthetic turf: 
    • Select plant-based or mineral-based infills over synthetic infills. Synthetic turf with plant-based and mineral-based infills may contain a smaller number of toxic chemicals compared to synthetic infills, although they also pose some hazards. If you must use synthetic infill, avoid using crumb rubber because it contains the highest amount of chemical hazards among all types of infill. For any type of infill, ask for full disclosure of content and testing data that demonstrates absence of chemicals of concern.
    • Avoid using turf or infill that advertise antimicrobial protection. Antimicrobials are used in some artificial turf products as preservatives. These antimicrobials do not serve a function related to reduction of disease transmission. These antimicrobials can also introduce chemical hazards. Furthermore, adding antimicrobials beyond what is necessary to protect the product can introduce additional hazardous chemicals. Read more about HBN’s research into antimicrobials in building products here.
    • Require full content disclosure for the turf, infill, and shock pad. Disclosure of chemical contents can be a concern with all types of synthetic turf. If specifying synthetic turf, it is important to obtain test data for all components of the turf system. In addition to information on metals, this should include information on PAHs, VOCs, SVOCs, phenols, and PFAS (measured through total fluorine content).[13]
    • If using a shock pad, avoid using in-situ pads or prefabricated pads made with crumb rubber or PVC. In-situ pads use a polyurethane binder that is cured on site. Prior to curing, this binder can expose workers to isocyanates, which are potent asthmagens and a leading cause of work-related asthma.[14] Crumb rubber contains a number of hazardous chemicals, and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) has a number of lifecycle concerns.[15] If pads are made with recycled content, ask for disclosure on the source of the content and avoid products with undefined recycled content.
    • Ask your supplier about end of life take back, recycling, or extended manufacturer responsibility programs. Understand that recycling options are limited for infills and synthetic grass carpet components.[16] Make sure clear options for turf and infill recycling are available prior to committing to installation of synthetic turf.

Natural grass (turfgrass) alone does not have significant human or environmental health hazards. Grass can be managed without synthetic pesticides and fertilizers, thus avoiding the addition of hazardous chemicals to the grass, by relying on practices like aeration, frequent mowing, soil testing, and using organic fertilizer and soil amendments.[17] Because these fields require frequent mowing, maintenance staff may be exposed to exhaust containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and elevated levels of fine respirable particles (PM2.5).[18] Because natural grass that is maintained without synthetic pesticides avoids most hazards, this type of turf is ranked highest on the hazard spectrum.

If the use of conventional pesticides cannot be avoided entirely, consider using an integrated pest management program (IPM). These programs are designed to reduce pesticide use by applying them more efficiently. This is accomplished through a number of measures including identifying acceptable pest thresholds, using targeted approaches to specific pests, and applying pesticides only when necessary.[19]

While IPM may reduce the use of pesticides, which can have a range of hazards including respiratory sensitization and endocrine disruption, it does not eliminate them.

Pest management that uses a calendar-based approach may lead to increased use of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Such increased use can potentially expose workers and bystanders to higher levels of hazardous chemicals.

The timing, amount, and type of chemicals applied varies widely.[20] These chemicals can have a range of associated hazards, including respiratory sensitization and endocrine disruption. In addition, many common insecticides are halogenated chemicals, which have considerable lifecycle concerns. Prior to seeding, soil fumigants may be used as broad spectrum pesticides to protect the field from nematodes, weeds, and other pests. These chemicals can be carcinogens and have a number of acute health effects associated with them. The EPA requires numerous safety measures to help protect workers and bystanders from exposure to these chemicals.[21]

Synthetic fertilizers generally carry fewer hazards than synthetic pesticides. 

Although chemicals that may be applied to natural grass can have significant health concerns, conventionally managed grass can be converted to organic grass at any time, whereas turf, once installed, can't easily be changed to something safer. For this reason, calendar-based pest management was ranked higher than all synthetic turf options.

Smaller sand particles can pose a cancer hazard if inhaled, and exposure to high airborne concentrations of these particles is linked to conditions such as silicosis, lung cancer, and chronic bronchitis, which can be an occupational concern for miners.[22]

Sand with acrylic or other types of coatings can contain antimicrobials to protect the product and reduce odor. In some products, antimicrobials may be necessary for product preservation. However, products marketed as being “antimicrobial” and having a health benefit may contain additional antimicrobials beyond those needed for preservation. To date no evidence suggests that the use of such products results in healthier populations, and the incorporated antimicrobials can negatively impact human health.[23]

Occupational exposures may also be a concern with acrylic-coated sand. In addition to the occupational hazards noted above for mining sand, the acrylic coating can be made with carcinogenic solvents and asthmagenic monomers, which could introduce occupational hazards to workers during production. 

Synthetic turf with sand infill may require a shock pad underneath the carpet to increase its shock attenuation. These pads vary in composition but can introduce a number of chemicals of concern. Avoid using in-situ pads or prefabricated pads made with crumb rubber or PVC. 

The concerns related to artificial grass carpet outlined in detail above apply to all types of synthetic turf, regardless of infill type. In addition, concerns related to disposal apply to all types of synthetic turf.[24] 

Plant-based infills are composed of materials such as cork, coconut fiber, walnut shells, rice husks, or wood particles. Plant-based infills may contain the least toxic chemicals, but are sometimes chemically treated. In addition, there can be concerns related to allergens, dust, and mold.[25] Some materials may have added antimicrobials, which can be asthmagens.[26]

Manufacturers usually recommend the use of a shock pad with plant-based infills.[27] These pads vary in composition but can introduce a number of chemicals of concern. Avoid using in-situ pads or prefabricated pads made with crumb rubber or PVC. 

The concerns related to artificial grass carpet outlined in detail above apply to all types of synthetic turf, regardless of infill type. In addition, concerns related to disposal apply to all types of synthetic turf.[28] 

The term thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) is broad and encompasses a wide range of materials.  Hazardous chemicals such as styrene, a carcinogen, may present an occupational hazard during TPE manufacturing.

TPE is often advertised as being free of hazardous chemicals associated with other types of rubber infill. Testing data are quite limited but have revealed the presence of some of these chemicals of concern in samples of TPE infill, though at lower concentrations than typically found in crumb rubber.[29] Due to the presence of metals like lead and cadmium, both PBTs (persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances), and hazardous phthalates, this product has a lower ranking than mineral and plant-based infills.

The concerns related to artificial grass carpet outlined in detail above apply to all types of synthetic turf, regardless of infill type. In addition, concerns related to disposal apply to all types of synthetic turf.[30]

EPDM is a synthetic rubber that has high resistance to heat and weathering and can be used as an alternative to tire-derived crumb rubber infill. Like TPE, fewer studies have been conducted on EPDM to test for hazardous chemicals, but the limited testing has identified PAHs, heavy metals, and phthalates in EPDM infill samples.[31] EPDM contains zinc oxide, which is highly toxic to aquatic life.

The concerns related to artificial grass carpet outlined in detail above apply to all types of synthetic turf, regardless of infill type. In addition, concerns related to disposal apply to all types of synthetic turf.[32]

Crumb rubber is made from the rubber component of tires that has been mechanically separated from other components, such as steel belts and fiber, and ground into small particles. Much research has been done considering the presence of hazardous chemicals in crumb rubber. These chemicals include PAHs, phthalates, heavy metals, processing oils, and other additives. Many of these chemicals are carcinogens, mutagens, and/or reproductive and developmental toxicants. As a result, many studies have been devoted to measuring the levels of these chemicals in crumb rubber infill. 

In addition to the chemicals for which hazard information is available, many chemicals associated with crumb rubber have unknown hazards, which cannot be assumed to be of low concern. In addition, the degradation of crumb rubber and the leaching of hazardous substances into the environment can impact people, plants, and aquatic life more broadly.[33] For instance, questions still remain about how much zinc can leach into water and affect aquatic life.[34] Like EPDM and TPE, crumb rubber is a potential source of microplastic pollution as well. Because tire-derived crumb rubber contains the highest levels of chemicals of concern, including persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals like heavy metals and PAHs, it is ranked lowest on the hazard spectrum. 

The concerns related to artificial grass carpet outlined in detail above apply to all types of synthetic turf, regardless of infill type. In addition, concerns related to disposal apply to all types of synthetic turf.[35]

Supporting Information

Unless otherwise noted, product content and health hazard information is based on research done by Healthy Building Network for Common Product profiles, reports, and blogs. Links to the appropriate resources are provided.

Common Product Records Sourced

Endnotes

[1] Watterson, Andrew. “Artificial Turf: Contested Terrains for Precautionary Public Health with Particular Reference to Europe?” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14, no. 9 (September 12, 2017): 1050. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091050.

[2] US EPA, ORD. “Federal Research on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields.” Overviews and Factsheets. US EPA, August 28, 2015. https://www.epa.gov/chemical-research/federal-research-recycled-tire-crumb-used-playing-fields

[3] A risk assessment was not completed as a part of the review. See National Toxicology Program. “Synthetic Turf/Recycled Tire Crumb Rubber.” Accessed September 11, 2020. https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/whatwestudy/topics/syntheticturf/index.html.

[4] U.S. EPA & CDC/ATSDR. (2019). Synthetic Turf Field Recycled Tire Crumb Rubber Research Under the Federal Research Action Plan Final Report: Part 1 - Tire Crumb Characterization (Volumes 1 and 2). (EPA/600/R-19/051). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. https://www.epa.gov/chemical-research/july-2019-report-tire-crumb-rubber-characterization-0

[5] Cheng, Hefa, Yuanan Hu, and Martin Reinhard. “Environmental and Health Impacts of Artificial Turf: A Review.” Environmental Science & Technology 48, no. 4 (February 18, 2014): 2114–29. https://doi.org/10.1021/es4044193.

[6]  Massey R, Pollard L, Jacobs M, Onasch J, Harari H. 2020. Artificial Turf Infill: A Comparative Assessment of Chemical Contents. New Solutions 30:1, 10-26.

[7] STMA. “Synthetic Turf Council Releases 2020 Synthetic Turf Market Report for North America.” Accessed September 9, 2020. https://www.stma.org/news/synthetic-turf-council-releases-2020-synthetic-turf-market-report-for-north-america/.

[8] Berger, Louis. “Recycling and Reuse of Crumb Rubber Infill Used in Synthetic Turf Athletic Fields.” Report under contract to CalRecycle, March 31, 2016. https://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/docs/cr/tires/bizassist/athleticfld.pdf; Eunomia Research & Consulting Ltd. “Environmental Impact Study on Artificial Football Turf.” FIFA, March 2017. http://quality.fifa.com/media/1230/artificial_turf_recycling.pdf.

[9] Eunomia Research & Consulting Ltd. “Environmental Impact Study on Artificial Football Turf.” FIFA, March 2017. http://quality.fifa.com/media/1230/artificial_turf_recycling.pdf; California State Water Resources Control Board. “Microplastics.” Accessed October 9, 2020. https://www.waterboards.ca.gov/drinking_water/certlic/drinkingwater/microplastics.html; Hung, Charlotte, Natasha Klasios, Xia Zhu, Meg Sedlak, Rebecca Sutton, and Chelsea M. Rochman. “Methods Matter: Methods for Sampling Microplastic and Other Anthropogenic Particles and Their Implications for Monitoring and Ecological Risk Assessment.” Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management (August 8, 2020). https://doi.org/10.1002/ieam.4325.

[10] “Potential Health and Environmental Effects Linked to Artificial Turf Systems - Final Report.” Norwegian Building Research Institute, October 9, 2004. https://www.knvb.nl/downloads/bestand/7065/noorwegen-2004--potential-health-and-environmental-effects-linked-to-artificial-turf-systems; Cheng, Hefa, and Martin Reinhard. “Field, Pilot, and Laboratory Studies for the Assessment of Water Quality Impacts of Artificial Turf.” Santa Clara Valley Water District, June 2010. https://www.valleywater.org/sites/default/files/Water%20Use%20Impacts%20of%20Artificial%20Turf.pdf; Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute. “Per- and Poly-Fluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in Artificial Turf Carpet.” Accessed September 11, 2020. https://www.turi.org/TURI_Publications/TURI_Chemical_Fact_Sheets/PFAS_in_Artificial_Turf_Carpet

[11] Meil, Jamie, and Lindita Bushi. “Estimating the Required Global Warming Offsets to Achieve a Carbon Neutral Synthetic Field Turf System Installation.” Athena Institute, 2006. http://www.athenasmi.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/UCC_project_ATHENA_technical_paper.pdf; Uhlman, Bruce, Mubaraka Diwan, Mark Dobson, Randall Sferrazza, and Paul Songer. “Synthetic Turf, Eco-Efficiency Analysis Final Report.” BASF Corporation, August 2010. https://www.basf.com/global/documents/en/sustainability/we-drive-sustainable-solutions/quantifying-sustainability/eco-efficiency-analysis/BASF_Synthetic_Turf_EEA_Study_Verification.pdf; Cheng, Hefa, Yuanan Hu, and Martin Reinhard. “Environmental and Health Impacts of Artificial Turf: A Review.” Environmental Science & Technology 48, no. 4 (February 18, 2014): 2114–29. https://doi.org/10.1021/es4044193.

[12] Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute, “Natural Grass Playing Field Case Study: Marblehead, MA” July 2019, https://www.turi.org/TURI_Publications/Case_Studies/Organic_Grass_Playing_Fields/Natural_Grass_Playing_Field_Case_Study_Marblehead_MA; Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute, “Natural Grass Playing Field Case Study: Springfield, MA” June 2019, https://www.turi.org/TURI_Publications/Case_Studies/Organic_Grass_Playing_Fields/Natural_Grass_Playing_Field_Case_Study_Springfield_MA.

[13] Massey R, Pollard L, Jacobs M, Onasch J, Harari H. 2020. Artificial Turf Infill: A Comparative Assessment of Chemical Contents. New Solutions 30:1, 10-26. 

[14] Lefkowitz, Daniel, Elise Pechter, Kathleen Fitzsimmons, Margaret Lumia, Alicia C. Stephens, Letitia Davis, Jennifer Flattery, et al. “Isocyanates and Work-Related Asthma: Findings from California, Massachusetts, Michigan and New Jersey, 1993-2008.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 58, no. 11 (November 2015): 1138–49. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22527.

[15] Vallette, Jim. “Chlorine & Building Materials Project: Phase 2 Asia Including Worldwide Findings.” Healthy Building Network, March 2019. https://healthybuilding.net/reports/20-chlorine-building-materials-project-phase-2-asia-including-worldwide-findings.

[16] Berger, Louis. “Recycling and Reuse of Crumb Rubber Infill Used in Synthetic Turf Athletic Fields.” Report under contract to CalRecycle, March 31, 2016. https://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/docs/cr/tires/bizassist/athleticfld.pdf

[17] Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute, “Natural Grass Playing Field Case Study: Marblehead, MA” July 2019, https://www.turi.org/TURI_Publications/Case_Studies/Organic_Grass_Playing_Fields/Natural_Grass_Playing_Field_Case_Study_Marblehead_MA; Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute, “Natural Grass Playing Field Case Study: Springfield, MA” June 2019, https://www.turi.org/TURI_Publications/Case_Studies/Organic_Grass_Playing_Fields/Natural_Grass_Playing_Field_Case_Study_Springfield_MA.

[18] Baldauf, Richard, Christopher Fortune, Jason Weinstein, Michael Wheeler, and Fred Blanchard. “Air Contaminant Exposures during the Operation of Lawn and Garden Equipment.” Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 16, no. 4 (July 2006): 362–70. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jes.7500471.

[19] US EPA, OCSPP. “Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Principles.” Overviews and Factsheets. US EPA, September 28, 2015. https://www.epa.gov/safepestcontrol/integrated-pest-management-ipm-principles; Penn State Extension. “Developing an Integrated Turfgrass Pest Management Program.” Accessed August 17, 2020. https://extension.psu.edu/developing-an-integrated-turfgrass-pest-management-program.

[20] McCarty, Bert. “2018 Pest Control Guidelines for Professional Turfgras Managers.” Clemson University, 2018. https://media.clemson.edu/public/turfgrass/2018%20Pesticide%20RECS/2018%20Pest%20Control%20Recommendations.pdf.

[21] OCSPP US EPA, “Implementing Safety Measures,” Overviews and Factsheets, US EPA, October 23, 2013, https://www.epa.gov/soil-fumigants/implementing-safety-measures.

[22] Minnesota Department of Health, “Crystalline Silica in Air & Water, and Health Effects,” March 27, 2019, https://www.health.state.mn.us/communities/environment/hazardous/docs/silica.pdf.

[23] Healthy Building Network and Perkins+Will. “Healthy Environments: Understanding Antimicrobial Ingredients in Building Materials,” March 2017. https://healthybuilding.net/reports/4-healthy-environments-understanding-antimicrobial-ingredients-in-building-materials.

[24] Massey R, Pollard L, Jacobs M, Onasch J, Harari H. 2020. Artificial Turf Infill: A Comparative Assessment of Chemical Contents. New Solutions 30:1, 10-26.

[25] Ibid.

[26] Sawyer, Daniel C., Stephen Keyser, Steven L. Sawyer, and Richard R. Runkles. Infill For Artificial Turf System. United States US20190203425A1, filed March 7, 2019, and issued July 4, 2019. https://patents.google.com/patent/US20190203425A1/en

[27]  “Study Concludes: Shock Pads Are Not the Answer to Field Safety - Artificial Turf Companies, Artificial Sports Turf Supplies - FieldTurf.” Accessed September 14, 2020. https://fieldturf.com/en/articles/detail/shock-pads-not-the-answer-to-field-safety/; Perry, John M. “Alternative Infills for Synthetic Turf Fields.” Facilities Manager, February 2019. https://www.galeassociates.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Alternative-Infills-for-Synthetic-Turf-Fields-JMP.pdf

[28] Massey R, Pollard L, Jacobs M, Onasch J, Harari H. 2020. Artificial Turf Infill: A Comparative Assessment of Chemical Contents. New Solutions 30:1, 10-26.

[29] Bauer, Bjørn, Kia Egebæk, and Aare Ane Kirstine. “Environmentally Friendly Substitute Products for Rubber Granulates as Infill for Artificial Turf Fields.” Norwegian Environmental Agency, November 2017. https://www.miljodirektoratet.no/globalassets/publikasjoner/M955/M955.pdf; “Chemicals in Alternative Synthetic Infills: Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE).” Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute, August 2017. https://www.turi.org/Our_Work/Community/Artificial_Turf/Infills_TPE.

[30] Massey R, Pollard L, Jacobs M, Onasch J, Harari H. 2020. Artificial Turf Infill: A Comparative Assessment of Chemical Contents. New Solutions 30:1, 10-26.

[31]  “Potential Health and Environmental Effects Linked to Artificial Turf Systems - Final Report.” Norwegian Building Research Institute, October 9, 2004. https://www.knvb.nl/downloads/bestand/7065/noorwegen-2004--potential-health-and-environmental-effects-linked-to-artificial-turf-systems; Bauer, Bjørn, Kia Egebæk, and Aare Ane Kirstine. “Environmentally Friendly Substitute Products for Rubber Granulates as Infill for Artificial Turf Fields.” Norwegian Environmental Agency, November 2017. https://www.miljodirektoratet.no/globalassets/publikasjoner/M955/M955.pdf.

[32] Massey R, Pollard L, Jacobs M, Onasch J, Harari H. 2020. Artificial Turf Infill: A Comparative Assessment of Chemical Contents. New Solutions 30:1, 10-26.

[33] Cheng, Hefa, and Martin Reinhard. “Field, Pilot, and Laboratory Studies for the Assessment of Water Quality Impacts of Artificial Turf.” Santa Clara Valley Water District, June 2010. https://www.valleywater.org/sites/default/files/Water%20Use%20Impacts%20of%20Artificial%20Turf.pdf; Maria Celeiro, Thierry Dagnac, and Maria Llompart, “Determination of Priority and Other Hazardous Substances in Football Fields of Synthetic Turf by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A Health and Environmental Concern,” Chemosphere 195 (March 1, 2018): 201–11, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.063.

[34] U.S. EPA & CDC/ATSDR. (2019). Synthetic Turf Field Recycled Tire Crumb Rubber Research Under the Federal Research Action Plan Final Report: Part 1 - Tire Crumb Characterization (Volumes 1 and 2). (EPA/600/R-19/051). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. https://www.epa.gov/chemical-research/july-2019-report-tire-crumb-rubber-characterization-0

[35] Massey R, Pollard L, Jacobs M, Onasch J, Harari H. 2020. Artificial Turf Infill: A Comparative Assessment of Chemical Contents. New Solutions 30:1, 10-26.

Last updated: October 28, 2020