Water Pipes Hazard Spectrum

Here is some general guidance to use when choosing water pipes. 

  • Prefer copper pipes installed without solders, fluxes, or other filler metals.
  • Avoid using copper pipes if your water supply typically has a low pH (<6.5).
  • If plastic pipes are selected, choose polypropylene (PP) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) over crosslinked polyethylene (PEX).
  • Avoid using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC).
  • Prefer products with full disclosure of content through Health Product Declarations (HPDs).

This hazard spectrum provides guidance on the types of pipes that supply potable water within residential or commercial buildings. It excludes water mains and supply lines.

Building water pipes can be made from copper or a range of plastic materials. While federal and local regulations limit the levels of certain harmful chemicals that can be present in municipal drinking water supplies,[1] some materials used in pipes that supply water within buildings contain hazardous chemicals that can leach into water during the pipe’s use. Chemical leaching can occur when drinking water and additives included to disinfect the water come into contact with pipes, releasing chemicals into the water. In general, plastic pipes require the use of more chemicals in their manufacture than metal pipes and some of these chemicals can leach from the pipes or break down into other chemicals that leach from the pipes.[2]

Because chemical leaching is a concern, standard methods have been developed to test the chemicals released from pipes, fittings, and other drinking water components. These standards also set limits on the levels of certain chemicals of concern in leachate. The most widely used standard is NSF/ANSI 61.[3] Almost all U.S. states require that components of drinking water distribution systems comply with NSF/ANSI 61, and some require certification by an independent third-party.[4] A separate standard, NSF/ANSI 372, sets limits on how much lead can be present in drinking water system components.[5] While these standards limit the concentrations of many chemicals with known toxicity concerns, they have limitations. For instance, many chemicals do not have any known hazards simply because they have been studied less, yet they may still be hazardous. The standards also do not consider the combined impacts of multiple chemical exposures that all people experience. In addition, water that remains stagnant in pipes for longer periods of time, such as in a school over a holiday break, may result in higher levels of leachate. One specific example of the limitations of the standards is that under U.S. federal law, plumbing fixtures and fittings can contain up to 0.25% lead by weight, and solders and fluxes can contain up to 0.2% lead by weight and still be labeled “lead free”.[6] Labeling components as “lead free” that actually contain lead is concerning because numerous authoritative bodies agree that there is no safe level for exposure to lead.[7] Because of these limitations, this Hazard Spectrum prioritizes the avoidance of chemicals with known or suspected health hazards in pipes, accessories, or leachate at any concentration. 

Most pipes are recyclable (excluding PEX), but it is unclear how much plastic piping is recovered at the end of its life. Copper is the only type of pipe in the spectrum that contains significant recycled content and is likely to be recycled at the end of its life.[8] All of these pipes have significant concerns in their life cycles. Copper extraction is associated with a number of health and environmental hazards,[9] as is petroleum extraction (required for plastic production). Comparing these extraction impacts was beyond the scope of this Hazard Spectrum. 

In general, water pipes have very poor content disclosure. Encourage manufacturers to fully disclose the content and associated health hazards of water pipes through the industry’s collaborative, user-designed open standard, Health Product Declarations (HPD).

Here is some general guidance to use when choosing insulation materials:

  • Prefer copper pipes installed without solders, fluxes, or other filler metals. After installation, copper pipes have the fewest health hazards, but many solders and fluxes contain lead and some filler metals contain other heavy metals of concern. “Lead-free” solders are still allowed to contain a small amount of lead under federal regulations.
  • Avoid using copper pipes if your water supply typically has a low pH (<6.5). Such conditions can be present in water supplied from some private wells, and can cause copper pipes to corrode, releasing copper ions into the water.[10] Consuming high concentrations of copper is linked to a number of health effects including liver and kidney damage.[11]
  • If plastic pipes are selected, choose polypropylene (PP) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) over crosslinked polyethylene (PEX). In general, plastic pipes require the use of more chemicals in their manufacture than metal pipes and some of these chemicals can leach from the pipes or break down into other chemicals that leach from the pipes into water.[12] Higher levels of chemicals may leach from PEX pipes than from PP and HDPE. In addition, PEX pipes cannot be recycled into new pipes at their end of life.
  • Avoid using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC). These pipes contain the highest levels of chemicals of concern and they are typically installed using hazardous solvents.

Under typical conditions, copper pipes contain the fewest health hazards among the pipes included in this Hazard Spectrum. Solders and fluxes can contain lead, a persistent and bioaccumulative toxicant, and other heavy metals. Because U.S. federal law allows solders and fluxes to contain up to 0.2% lead by weight and still be labeled “lead free,” even “lead free” solders may still contain a small amount of lead. Numerous authoritative bodies consider lead to have no safe exposure level.[13] Pipes installed mechanically can include flared joints or fittings containing rubber gaskets and seals (e.g. roll groove joints, press fittings and push fittings).[14] Using these installation methods avoids the potential for exposure to lead and other heavy metals.[15]

While copper pipes contain the fewest hazards, it is important to note that they may not be the best choice when the drinking water supply is expected to be acidic (pH <6.5). Such conditions can be present in water supplied from some private wells, and can cause these pipes to corrode, releasing copper ions into the water.[16] Consuming high concentrations of copper is linked to a number of health effects including liver and kidney damage.[17] Thus, copper pipes should be avoided when low pHs are expected.

Polypropylene pipes contain few health hazards in the pipes themselves. Their joints are typically fused using heat and pressure, so solvent cements can be avoided. Leaching studies using new PP pipes identified some hazardous chemicals in the water. However, it is unclear how long leaching persists.

Like polypropylene pipes, HDPE pipes contain few health hazards in the pipes themselves.  Their joints are joined using heat and pressure so they do not require the use of solvent cements. Some hazardous chemicals were identified in water passing through HDPE pipes through leaching studies. Similar to polypropylene pipes, it is not clear whether or not this leaching continues for a long period of time.

Like HDPE and PP, there are few health hazards in the main content of the pipes themselves, but there is concern that chemicals can leach from the pipes or break down into other chemicals that leach from the pipes.[18] Water supplied from PEX pipes is also sometimes known to have taste and odor problems.[19] Some studies indicate that more chemicals can leach from PEX than from the plastics ranked higher in this Hazard Spectrum.[20] These pipes are installed using a variety of polymer and metal fittings. PEX is the only type of pipe on the Hazard Spectrum that cannot be recycled into new pipes, so its end-of-life options are limited.

While copper pipes operating under normal conditions carry few concerns, many common solders still contain lead and other heavy metals. Even “lead-free” solders may still contain a small amount of lead (up to 0.2% by weight). Because the U.S. EPA classifies lead as a persistent and bioaccumulative toxicant, and because there is broad consensus that no “safe” level for exposure to lead exists, the use of these solders should be avoided to minimize negative health and environmental impacts.[21]

As noted above, copper pipes can be problematic when the drinking water supply is expected to be acidic (pH <6.5). Such conditions can be present in water supplied from some private wells, and can cause these pipes to corrode, releasing copper ions into the water.[22] Consuming high concentrations of copper is linked to a number of health effects including liver and kidney damage.[23] Thus, copper pipes should be avoided when low pHs are expected.

Polyvinyl chloride pipes commonly contain organotin stabilizers, which are not bound to the pipe and have been shown to continuously leach out of the pipes into water.[24] These chemicals are suspected developmental toxicants and may also cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure.[25] In addition, ortho-phthalates (commonly called phthalates) have been found to leach from some PVC pipes.[26] While phthalates are not added to PVC pipes, their presence may result from cross contamination of equipment used to manufacture flexible PVC products, which require plasticizers.[27] The presence of even small amounts of phthalates is a concern because they are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can mimic hormones, and consequently are associated with numerous health effects.[28]

PVC pipes are commonly joined by elastomeric sealing connections or solvent cement. These solvent cements can expose workers to hazardous chemicals such as tetrahydrofuran, a suspected carcinogen.[29] Some plumbers have expressed their concerns about the long term impacts of installing PVC pipes on their health.[30]

In addition to the chemical hazards present in the material and during installation, the PVC production process requires more hazardous chemicals than the other plastics in this Hazard Spectrum, placing it at the bottom of the ranking.[31]

Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipes are similar to PVC pipes, but they are made from a resin that contains more chlorine than PVC. The extra chlorine gives the pipes performance benefits over PVC including greater durability. Like PVC pipes, CPVC pipes commonly use organotin stabilizers that have been shown to continuously leach into water that comes into contact with the pipes.[32] These chemicals are suspected developmental toxicants and may also cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure. Furthermore, phthalates have been found to leach out of some CPVC pipes.[33] While phthalates are not typically added to CPVC pipes, their presence may result from cross contamination of equipment used to manufacture flexible PVC products that require plasticizers.[34] As noted above, the presence of even small amounts of phthalates is a concern because they are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can mimic hormones, and consequently are associated with numerous health effects.[35]

Like PVC, CPVC pipes are commonly joined with solvent cement that can expose workers to hazardous chemicals such as tetrahydrofuran, a suspected carcinogen.[36] CPVC production has the same hazardous chemicals present at every step as the PVC production process.[37]

Supporting Information

Unless otherwise noted, product content and health hazard information is based on research done by Healthy Building Network for Common Product profiles, reports, and blogs. Links to the appropriate resources are provided.

Common Product Records Sourced

Endnotes

[1] US EPA, OW. “National Primary Drinking Water Regulations.” Overviews and Factsheets. US EPA, November 30, 2015. https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/national-primary-drinking-water-regulations.; US EPA, OW. “Ground Water and Drinking Water.” Collections and Lists. US EPA, February 20, 2013. https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water

[2] Most leaching studies focus on new materials, but a few are available that look at long-term leaching from pipes. For example, see Connell, Matthew, Alexandra Stenson, Lauren Weinrich, Mark LeChevallier, Shelby L. Boyd, Raaj R. Ghosal, Rajarshi Dey, and Andrew J. Whelton. “PEX and PP Water Pipes: Assimilable Carbon, Chemicals, and Odors.” Journal AWWA 108, no. 4 (2016): E192–204. https://doi.org/10.5942/jawwa.2016.108.0016; Lasheen, M. R., C. M. Sharaby, N. G. El-Kholy, I. Y. Elsherif, and S. T. El-Wakeel. “Factors Influencing Lead and Iron Release from Some Egyptian Drinking Water Pipes.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 160, no. 2 (December 30, 2008): 675–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.03.040; and Löschner, Dorit, Thomas Rapp, Frank-Ullrich Schlosser, Ramona Schuster, Ernst Stottmeister, and Sven Zander. “Experience with the Application of the Draft European Standard PrEN 15768 to the Identification of Leachable Organic Substances from Materials in Contact with Drinking Water by GC-MS.” Analytical Methods 3, no. 11 (November 1, 2011): 2547–56. https://doi.org/10.1039/C1AY05471F.

[3] NSF International. “NSF/ANSI 61: Drinking Water System Components – Health Effects.” 1/5/2016. NSF International. Accessed July 9, 2021. https://www.nsf.org/knowledge-library/nsf-ansi-standard-61-drinking-water-system-components-health-effects.

[4] NSF International. “NSF/ANSI/CAN 61 Certification for Your Drinking Water Components.” NSF International. Accessed July 9, 2021. https://www.nsf.org/knowledge-library/nsf-ansi-61-certification-for-your-drinking-water-components

[5] NSF International. “NSF/ANSI 372 Technical Requirements.” NSF International. Accessed July 9, 2021. https://www.nsf.org/knowledge-library/nsf-ansi-372-technical-requirements.

[6] US EPA, OW. “Use of Lead Free Pipes, Fittings, Fixtures, Solder, and Flux for Drinking Water.” Overviews and Factsheets. US EPA. Accessed July 8, 2021. https://www.epa.gov/sdwa/use-lead-free-pipes-fittings-fixtures-solder-and-flux-drinking-water; Copper Development Association. “Copper Tube Handbook: VI. Fittings, Solders, Fluxes: Solders.” Accessed August 10, 2021. https://www.copper.org/applications/plumbing/cth/fittings/cth_5join_sod.html; ASTM B32-20, Standard Specification for Solder Metal, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020,https://doi.org/10.1520/B0032-20.

[7] American Academy of Pediatrics. “Lead Exposure in Children.” AAP.org. Accessed July 8, 2021. http://www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/lead-exposure/Pages/Lead-Exposure-in-Children.aspx; US EPA, OW. “Basic Information about Lead in Drinking Water.” Overviews and Factsheets. US EPA, February 2, 2016. https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/basic-information-about-lead-drinking-water; World Health Organization (WHO). “Lead Poisoning and Health.” Accessed July 8, 2021. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/lead-poisoning-and-health.

[8] Glöser, Simon, Marcel Soulier, and Luis A. Tercero Espinoza. “Dynamic Analysis of Global Copper Flows. Global Stocks, Postconsumer Material Flows, Recycling Indicators, and Uncertainty Evaluation.” Environmental Science & Technology 47, no. 12 (June 18, 2013): 6564–72. https://doi.org/10.1021/es400069b.

[9] Danwatch. “Impacts of Copper Mining on People and Nature.” Accessed April 30, 2020. https://old.danwatch.dk/en/undersogelseskapitel/impacts-of-copper-mining-on-people-and-nature/; Roberts, Tristan. “Piping in Perspective: Selecting Pipe for Plumbing in Buildings.” BuildingGreen, April 5, 2007. https://www.buildinggreen.com/feature/piping-perspective-selecting-pipe-plumbing-buildings.

[10] National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). “Chapter 8: Rural Water Supplies and Water-Quality Issues.” and “Chapter 9: Plumbing.” In Healthy Housing Reference Manual. U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2009. https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/publications/books/housing/cha09.htm.

[11] US EPA, OW. “National Primary Drinking Water Regulations.” Overviews and Factsheets. US EPA, November 30, 2015. https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/national-primary-drinking-water-regulations; Minnesota Department of Health. “Copper in Drinking Water.” Accessed July 12, 2021. https://www.health.state.mn.us/communities/environment/water/contaminants/copper.html#HealthEffects.

[12] Connell, Matthew, Alexandra Stenson, Lauren Weinrich, Mark LeChevallier, Shelby L. Boyd, Raaj R. Ghosal, Rajarshi Dey, and Andrew J. Whelton. “PEX and PP Water Pipes: Assimilable Carbon, Chemicals, and Odors.” Journal AWWA 108, no. 4 (2016): E192–204. https://doi.org/10.5942/jawwa.2016.108.0016; Lasheen, M. R., C. M. Sharaby, N. G. El-Kholy, I. Y. Elsherif, and S. T. El-Wakeel. “Factors Influencing Lead and Iron Release from Some Egyptian Drinking Water Pipes.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 160, no. 2 (December 30, 2008): 675–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.03.040; Löschner, Dorit, Thomas Rapp, Frank-Ullrich Schlosser, Ramona Schuster, Ernst Stottmeister, and Sven Zander. “Experience with the Application of the Draft European Standard PrEN 15768 to the Identification of Leachable Organic Substances from Materials in Contact with Drinking Water by GC-MS.” Analytical Methods 3, no. 11 (November 1, 2011): 2547–56. https://doi.org/10.1039/C1AY05471F.

[13] American Academy of Pediatrics. “Lead Exposure in Children.” AAP.org. Accessed July 8, 2021. http://www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/lead-exposure/Pages/Lead-Exposure-in-Children.aspx; US EPA, OW. “Basic Information about Lead in Drinking Water.” Overviews and Factsheets. US EPA, February 2, 2016. https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/basic-information-about-lead-drinking-water; World Health Organization (WHO). “Lead Poisoning and Health.” Accessed July 8, 2021. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/lead-poisoning-and-health.

[14] Copper Development Association. “Copper.Org: Copper Tube Handbook: XI. Press-Connect Joints.” Accessed August 11, 2021. https://www.copper.org/applications/plumbing/cth/press-connect/.

[15] US EPA, OW. “Use of Lead Free Pipes, Fittings, Fixtures, Solder, and Flux for Drinking Water.” Overviews and Factsheets. US EPA. Accessed July 8, 2021. https://www.epa.gov/sdwa/use-lead-free-pipes-fittings-fixtures-solder-and-flux-drinking-water.

[16] National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). “Chapter 8: Rural Water Supplies and Water-Quality Issues.” and “Chapter 9: Plumbing.” In Healthy Housing Reference Manual. U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2009. https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/publications/books/housing/cha09.htm.

[17] US EPA, OW. “National Primary Drinking Water Regulations.” Overviews and Factsheets. US EPA, November 30, 2015. https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/national-primary-drinking-water-regulations; Minnesota Department of Health. “Copper in Drinking Water.” Accessed July 12, 2021. https://www.health.state.mn.us/communities/environment/water/contaminants/copper.html#HealthEffects.

[18] Connell, Matthew, Alexandra Stenson, Lauren Weinrich, Mark LeChevallier, Shelby L. Boyd, Raaj R. Ghosal, Rajarshi Dey, and Andrew J. Whelton. “PEX and PP Water Pipes: Assimilable Carbon, Chemicals, and Odors.” Journal AWWA 108, no. 4 (2016): E192–204. https://doi.org/10.5942/jawwa.2016.108.0016; Lund, Vidar, Mary Anderson-Glenna, Ingun Skjevrak, and Inger-Lise Steffensen. “Long-Term Study of Migration of Volatile Organic Compounds from Cross-Linked Polyethylene (PEX) Pipes and Effects on Drinking Water Quality.” Journal of Water and Health 9, no. 3 (September 1, 2011): 483–97. https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2011.165; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten, Christopher Kevin Waul, Henrik Rasmus Andersen, Bozena Seredynska-Sobecka, Hans Mosbæk, Nina Christensen, Mikael Emil Olsson, and Erik Arvin. “HS-SPME-GC-MS Analysis of Antioxidant Degradation Products Migrating to Drinking Water from PE Materials and PEX Pipes.” International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry 93, no. 6 (May 1, 2013): 593–612. https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319.2012.727805; Shaikh, Muhammad Mansoor, Awadh O. AlSuhaimi, Marlia M. Hanafiah, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf, Ahad Fantoukh, and Eman AlHarbi. “Leachable Volatile Organic Compounds from Polyethylene Plumbing Plastic Pipes: A Case Study of Medina Al Munawarah, Saudi Arabia.” Acta Chemica Malaysia 1, no. 1 (February 17, 2017): 01–03. https://doi.org/10.26480/acmy.01.2017.01.03; Skjevrak, Ingun, Anne Due, Karl Olav Gjerstad, and Hallgeir Herikstad. “Volatile Organic Components Migrating from Plastic Pipes (HDPE, PEX and PVC) into Drinking Water.” Water Research 37, no. 8 (April 2003): 1912–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00576-6

[19] Lund, Vidar, Mary Anderson-Glenna, Ingun Skjevrak, and Inger-Lise Steffensen. “Long-Term Study of Migration of Volatile Organic Compounds from Cross-Linked Polyethylene (PEX) Pipes and Effects on Drinking Water Quality.” Journal of Water and Health 9, no. 3 (September 1, 2011): 483–97. https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2011.165; Skjevrak, Ingun, Anne Due, Karl Olav Gjerstad, and Hallgeir Herikstad. “Volatile Organic Components Migrating from Plastic Pipes (HDPE, PEX and PVC) into Drinking Water.” Water Research 37, no. 8 (April 2003): 1912–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00576-6;

Connell, Matthew, Alexandra Stenson, Lauren Weinrich, Mark LeChevallier, Shelby L. Boyd, Raaj R. Ghosal, Rajarshi Dey, and Andrew J. Whelton. “PEX and PP Water Pipes: Assimilable Carbon, Chemicals, and Odors.” Journal AWWA 108, no. 4 (2016): E192–204. https://doi.org/10.5942/jawwa.2016.108.0016.

[20] Danish Environmental Protection Agency. “Statusvurdering vedr. afgivelse af organiske stoffer fra plastrør til drikkevand.” Danish Environmental Protection Agency, 2012. https://www2.mst.dk/Udgiv/publikationer/2012/09/978-87-92903-53-2.pdf.

[21] American Academy of Pediatrics. “Lead Exposure in Children.” AAP.org. Accessed July 8, 2021. http://www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/lead-exposure/Pages/Lead-Exposure-in-Children.aspx; US EPA, OW. “Basic Information about Lead in Drinking Water.” Overviews and Factsheets. US EPA, February 2, 2016. https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/basic-information-about-lead-drinking-water; World Health Organization (WHO). “Lead Poisoning and Health.” Accessed July 8, 2021. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/lead-poisoning-and-health.

[22] National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). “Chapter 8: Rural Water Supplies and Water-Quality Issues.” and “Chapter 9: Plumbing.” In Healthy Housing Reference Manual. U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2009. https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/publications/books/housing/cha09.htm.

[23] US EPA, OW. “National Primary Drinking Water Regulations.” Overviews and Factsheets. US EPA, November 30, 2015. https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/national-primary-drinking-water-regulations; Minnesota Department of Health. “Copper in Drinking Water.” Accessed July 12, 2021. https://www.health.state.mn.us/communities/environment/water/contaminants/copper.html#HealthEffects.

[24] Adams, William A., Ying Xu, John C. Little, Anthony F. Fristachi, Glenn E. Rice, and Christopher A. Impellitteri. “Predicting the Migration Rate of Dialkyl Organotins from PVC Pipe into Water.” Environmental Science & Technology 45, no. 16 (August 15, 2011): 6902–7. https://doi.org/10.1021/es201552x.

[25] For instance, dimethyltin bis(2-ethylhexyl mercaptoacetate) CAS # 57583-35-4 is a heat stabilizer found in PVC water pipes and is “Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child”  and “may cause damage to organic through prolonged or repeated exposure” per European Chemicals Agency Classification & Labelling Inventory.

[26] Tomboulian, P., L. Schweitzer, K. Mullin, J. Wilson, and D. Khiari. “Materials Used in Drinking Water Distribution Systems: Contribution to Taste-and-Odor.” Water Science and Technology 49, no. 9 (May 1, 2004): 219–26. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2004.0575; Faust, Derek R., Kimberly J. Wooten, and Philip N. Smith. “Transfer of Phthalates from C-Polyvinyl Chloride and Cross-Linked Polyethylene Pipe (PEX-b) into Drinking Water.” Water Supply 17, no. 2 (September 28, 2016): 588–96. https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2016.164.

[27]  Faust, Derek R., Kimberly J. Wooten, and Philip N. Smith. “Transfer of Phthalates from C-Polyvinyl Chloride and Cross-Linked Polyethylene Pipe (PEX-b) into Drinking Water.” Water Supply 17, no. 2 (September 28, 2016): 588–96. https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2016.164.

[28] Gore, A. C., V. A. Chappell, S. E. Fenton, J. A. Flaws, A. Nadal, G. S. Prins, J. Toppari, and R. T. Zoeller. “EDC-2: The Endocrine Society’s Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals.” Endocrine Reviews 36, no. 6 (December 2015): E1–150. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2015-1010; Engel, Stephanie M., Heather B. Patisaul, Charlotte Brody, Russ Hauser, Ami R. Zota, Deborah H. Bennet, Maureen Swanson, and Robin M. Whyatt. “Neurotoxicity of Ortho-Phthalates: Recommendations for Critical Policy Reforms to Protect Brain Development in Children.” American Journal of Public Health, February 18, 2021, e1–9. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2020.306014; Bennett Deborah, Bellinger David C., Birnbaum Linda S., Bradman Asa, Chen Aimin, Cory-Slechta Deborah A., Engel Stephanie M., et al. “Project TENDR: Targeting Environmental Neuro-Developmental Risks The TENDR Consensus Statement.” Environmental Health Perspectives 124, no. 7 (July 1, 2016): A118–22. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP358.

[29] Contech Engineered Solutions, LLC. “PVC Pipe Cement Safety Data Sheet,” August 8, 2013. https://www.conteches.com/Portals/0/Documents/MSDS/pvc%20pipe%20cement%20sds.pdf?ver=2018-05-31-143241-600. Accessed July 26, 2021; Oaty Co. “Fusion Clear PVC Cement Safety Data Sheet,” November 18, 2016. https://images.homedepot-static.com/catalog/pdfImages/29/29950475-eeb8-47dd-b211-58e336bee077.pdf. Accessed July 26, 2021; Thomas & Betts Corporation. “Carlon Low-VOC Solvent Cement for PVC Plastic Pipe Safety Data Sheet,” May 6, 2016. https://www.cesco.com/resources/pdf_66D/sds-00060-tb2.pdf. Accessed July 26, 2021.

[30] Cheryl Fiandaca. “I-Team: Plumbers Say PVC Pipe Is Long-Term Health Hazard.” WBZ CBS Boston (blog), June 8, 2021. https://boston.cbslocal.com/2021/06/08/i-team-plumbing-massachusetts-pvc-health-risks-building-code/.

[31] Ann Blake and Mark Rossi. “Plastics Scorecard.” Clean Production Action, July 1, 2014. https://www.cleanproduction.org/resources/entry/plastics-scorecard-resource.

[32] Adams, William A., Ying Xu, John C. Little, Anthony F. Fristachi, Glenn E. Rice, and Christopher A. Impellitteri. “Predicting the Migration Rate of Dialkyl Organotins from PVC Pipe into Water.” Environmental Science & Technology 45, no. 16 (August 15, 2011): 6902–7. https://doi.org/10.1021/es201552x.

[33] Tomboulian, P., L. Schweitzer, K. Mullin, J. Wilson, and D. Khiari. “Materials Used in Drinking Water Distribution Systems: Contribution to Taste-and-Odor.” Water Science and Technology 49, no. 9 (May 1, 2004): 219–26. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2004.0575; Faust, Derek R., Kimberly J. Wooten, and Philip N. Smith. “Transfer of Phthalates from C-Polyvinyl Chloride and Cross-Linked Polyethylene Pipe (PEX-b) into Drinking Water.” Water Supply 17, no. 2 (September 28, 2016): 588–96. https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2016.164.

[34] Faust, Derek R., Kimberly J. Wooten, and Philip N. Smith. “Transfer of Phthalates from C-Polyvinyl Chloride and Cross-Linked Polyethylene Pipe (PEX-b) into Drinking Water.” Water Supply 17, no. 2 (September 28, 2016): 588–96. https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2016.164.

[35] Gore, A. C., V. A. Chappell, S. E. Fenton, J. A. Flaws, A. Nadal, G. S. Prins, J. Toppari, and R. T. Zoeller. “EDC-2: The Endocrine Society’s Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals.” Endocrine Reviews 36, no. 6 (December 2015): E1–150. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2015-1010; Engel, Stephanie M., Heather B. Patisaul, Charlotte Brody, Russ Hauser, Ami R. Zota, Deborah H. Bennet, Maureen Swanson, and Robin M. Whyatt. “Neurotoxicity of Ortho-Phthalates: Recommendations for Critical Policy Reforms to Protect Brain Development in Children.” American Journal of Public Health, February 18, 2021, e1–9. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2020.306014; Bennett Deborah, Bellinger David C., Birnbaum Linda S., Bradman Asa, Chen Aimin, Cory-Slechta Deborah A., Engel Stephanie M., et al. “Project TENDR: Targeting Environmental Neuro-Developmental Risks The TENDR Consensus Statement.” Environmental Health Perspectives 124, no. 7 (July 1, 2016): A118–22. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP358.

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Last updated: August 20, 2021